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#1 2020-04-28 21:09:18

迪卡
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众人拾柴-F1C200S文件系统构建

构建debian文件系统,作为记录,最小rootfs在180MB左右。
安装构建文件系统的工具,一个是用来chroot,一个是用来构建文件系统

sudo apt install qemu-user-static -y
sudo apt install debootstrap -y
mkdir rootfs

构建文件系统之前,你要知道你想要构建哪个版本的文件系统,
我从https://www.debian.org/mirror/list.zh-cn.html这里,选择了我访问速度快的源,
并且该源有armel。
我看华为源挺快的,就用这个了mirrors.huaweicloud.com
然后就是debian的版本,我尝试一下最新的,buster

sudo debootstrap --foreign --verbose --arch=armel  buster rootfs http://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian/

构建完成之后,需要chroot进去修改密码等配置

cd rootfs
sudo mount --bind /dev dev/
sudo mount --bind /sys sys/
sudo mount --bind /proc proc/
sudo mount --bind /dev/pts dev/pts/
cd ..
sudo cp /usr/bin/qemu-arm-static rootfs/usr/bin/
sudo chmod +x rootfs/usr/bin/qemu-arm-static
sudo LC_ALL=C LANGUAGE=C LANG=C chroot rootfs /debootstrap/debootstrap --second-stage --verbose
sudo LC_ALL=C LANGUAGE=C LANG=C chroot rootfs

最后一条命令chroot完成,
此时可以先apt-get等给你的文件系统安装你需要的软件包

修改root登录密码的方式如下

passwd 你的密码

修改源

sudo gedit rootfs/etc/apt/sourc.list
改为deb http://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/debian buster main

这部操作不知道是干什么,应该和登录有关

sudo gedit rootfs/etc/ssh/sshd_config
添加PermitRootLogin yes

清理缓存,打包之后就可以替换你的文件系统了

apt-cache clean #删除安装包 
exit  #退出chroot
rm rootfs/usr/bin/qemu-arm-static
unmount all point 2 did.   ---- but all documents not mention this.

cd rootfs  #进到文件系统目录
tar cvf ../rootfs.tar .    #要注意那个.  代表当前目录
生成的rootfs.tar任意解压到文件系统即可

最近编辑记录 迪卡 (2020-04-28 21:11:29)

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#2 2020-04-28 22:31:33

风云剑
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Re: 众人拾柴-F1C200S文件系统构建

说说你的host系统版本。
我ubuntu 14.04,在debootstrap 的时候总是失败,dpkg-deb 解压xz文件有问题

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#3 2020-04-29 11:43:00

迪卡
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Re: 众人拾柴-F1C200S文件系统构建

风云剑 说:

说说你的host系统版本。
我ubuntu 14.04,在debootstrap 的时候总是失败,dpkg-deb 解压xz文件有问题

16.04

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#4 2020-04-29 22:57:27

迪卡
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Re: 众人拾柴-F1C200S文件系统构建

使用wpa_supplicant连接wifi。
创建配置文件
/etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
可以使用vi来编写此文件,我还特地去学了一下,如何改光标位置,如何删除,如何保存。
内容为

network={
  ssid="我的热点"
  psk="我的密码"
}

然后
wpa_supplicant -B -d -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf就OK了

root@dika-pc:~# wpa_supplicant -B -i wlan0 -c /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf
Successfully initialized wpa_supplicant
rfkill: Cannot open RFKILL control device
root@dika-pc:~# [  444.817608] wlan0: authenticate with e4:67:1e:02:33:c0
[  444.843208] wlan0: send auth to e4:67:1e:02:33:c0 (try 1/3)
[  444.900867] wlan0: authenticated
[  444.935561] wlan0: associate with e4:67:1e:02:33:c0 (try 1/3)
[  444.986874] wlan0: RX AssocResp from e4:67:1e:02:33:c0 (capab=0x411 status=0 aid=4)
[  445.033483] wlan0: associated
[  446.047125] IPv6: ADDRCONF(NETDEV_CHANGE): wlan0: link becomes ready
^C
root@dika-pc:~# udhcpc -i wlan0
udhcpc: started, v1.30.1
udhcpc: sending discover
udhcpc: sending select for 172.16.1.106
udhcpc: lease of 172.16.1.106 obtained, lease time 43200
root@dika-pc:~# ping www.dika.ren
PING www.dika.ren (149.129.80.46) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 149.129.80.46: icmp_seq=3 ttl=45 time=217 ms
64 bytes from 149.129.80.46: icmp_seq=4 ttl=45 time=417 ms
64 bytes from 149.129.80.46: icmp_seq=5 ttl=45 time=102 ms
64 bytes from 149.129.80.46: icmp_seq=6 ttl=45 time=108 ms
^C
--- www.dika.ren ping statistics ---
6 packets transmitted, 4 received, 33.3333% packet loss, time 346ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 102.009/211.020/417.367/127.586 ms

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#5 2020-04-29 22:58:48

迪卡
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Re: 众人拾柴-F1C200S文件系统构建

连接wifi千万不要玩iw啥的,那个东西不能连现在的加密方式的wifi

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#6 2020-04-29 23:13:07

metro
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Re: 众人拾柴-F1C200S文件系统构建

曾经用squashfs将Debian的rootfs压缩到可以放在128MB的NAND中,缺点是squashfs是只读的,需要用overlayfs等方式实现完整的文件读写。

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#7 2020-04-29 23:30:51

迪卡
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Re: 众人拾柴-F1C200S文件系统构建

明天研究如何SWAP空间,因为apt-get时候经常蹦内存

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#8 2020-04-30 18:09:48

jiangming1399
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Re: 众人拾柴-F1C200S文件系统构建

debootstrap --arch=armhf buster chroot https://mirrors.ustc.edu.cn/debian/

这一行就够了,不用什么stage2之类的东西。

ref: https://www.lotlab.org/2020/04/09/run-debian-on-rtd1195-based-nas-device/

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#9 2020-04-30 21:00:38

迪卡
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Re: 众人拾柴-F1C200S文件系统构建

增加swap分区,
使用free查看当前swap大小

使用如下命令创建你想要添加swap分区的大小

dd if=/dev/zero of=/swap1 bs=1M count=512  #改成你要设置的SWAP大小,512就是512MB

设置swap分区文件

mkswap /swap1

激活swap分区

swapon /swap1

此时使用free命令就能看到创建好的swap分区,但这只是临时性的, 重启会失效,我们让它给爸爸记住,下次开机时候要开swap

vi /etc/fstab
操作,在最后一行添加
/swap1 swap swap defaults 0 0

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#10 2020-05-01 16:32:41

LinjieGuo
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Re: 众人拾柴-F1C200S文件系统构建

mark

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#11 2020-05-03 20:18:00

迪卡
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Re: 众人拾柴-F1C200S文件系统构建

https://blog.csdn.net/u012577474/article/details/104795000
大佬可以试一下跑一下桌面看一下效果

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#12 2020-05-03 20:29:39

rdghx
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Re: 众人拾柴-F1C200S文件系统构建

跑得动吗?是否流畅?

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#13 2020-08-04 21:18:27

lignin
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Re: 众人拾柴-F1C200S文件系统构建

在这里存一个我的debian系统启动日志,在ubuntu20.04LTS编译的,里面还有一堆问题,慢慢解决吧

U-Boot SPL 2018.01-05679-g013ca457fd (Aug 04 2020 - 19:41:13)
DRAM: 32 MiB
Trying to boot from MMC1


U-Boot 2018.01-05679-g013ca457fd (Aug 04 2020 - 19:41:13 +0800) Allwinner Technology

CPU:   Allwinner F Series (SUNIV)
Model: Lichee Pi Nano
DRAM:  32 MiB
MMC:   SUNXI SD/MMC: 0
*** Warning - bad CRC, using default environment

In:    serial@1c25000
Out:   serial@1c25000
Err:   serial@1c25000
Net:   No ethernet found.
starting USB...
No controllers found
Hit any key to stop autoboot:  0 
switch to partitions #0, OK
mmc0 is current device
Scanning mmc 0:1...
Found U-Boot script /boot.scr
reading /boot.scr
279 bytes read in 15 ms (17.6 KiB/s)
## Executing script at 80c50000
reading suniv-f1c100s-licheepi-nano.dtb
7583 bytes read in 26 ms (284.2 KiB/s)
reading zImage
3836280 bytes read in 202 ms (18.1 MiB/s)
## Flattened Device Tree blob at 80c00000
   Booting using the fdt blob at 0x80c00000
   Loading Device Tree to 816fb000, end 816ffd9e ... OK

Starting kernel ...

[    0.000000] Booting Linux on physical CPU 0x0
[    0.000000] Linux version 4.15.0-rc8-licheepi-nano+ (lign@lign-G3-3579) (gcc version 7.2.1 20171011 (Lina0
[    0.000000] CPU: ARM926EJ-S [41069265] revision 5 (ARMv5TEJ), cr=0005317f
[    0.000000] CPU: VIVT data cache, VIVT instruction cache
[    0.000000] OF: fdt: Machine model: Lichee Pi Nano
[    0.000000] Memory policy: Data cache writeback
[    0.000000] random: fast init done
[    0.000000] Built 1 zonelists, mobility grouping on.  Total pages: 8128
[    0.000000] Kernel command line: console=tty0 console=ttyS0,115200 panic=5 rootwait root=/dev/mmcblk0p2 rw
[    0.000000] Dentry cache hash table entries: 4096 (order: 2, 16384 bytes)
[    0.000000] Inode-cache hash table entries: 2048 (order: 1, 8192 bytes)
[    0.000000] Memory: 22684K/32768K available (6144K kernel code, 236K rwdata, 1388K rodata, 1024K init, 24)
[    0.000000] Virtual kernel memory layout:
[    0.000000]     vector  : 0xffff0000 - 0xffff1000   (   4 kB)
[    0.000000]     fixmap  : 0xffc00000 - 0xfff00000   (3072 kB)
[    0.000000]     vmalloc : 0xc2800000 - 0xff800000   ( 976 MB)
[    0.000000]     lowmem  : 0xc0000000 - 0xc2000000   (  32 MB)
[    0.000000]     pkmap   : 0xbfe00000 - 0xc0000000   (   2 MB)
[    0.000000]     modules : 0xbf000000 - 0xbfe00000   (  14 MB)
[    0.000000]       .text : 0x(ptrval) - 0x(ptrval)   (7136 kB)
[    0.000000]       .init : 0x(ptrval) - 0x(ptrval)   (1024 kB)
[    0.000000]       .data : 0x(ptrval) - 0x(ptrval)   ( 237 kB)
[    0.000000]        .bss : 0x(ptrval) - 0x(ptrval)   ( 245 kB)
[    0.000000] SLUB: HWalign=32, Order=0-3, MinObjects=0, CPUs=1, Nodes=1
[    0.000000] NR_IRQS: 16, nr_irqs: 16, preallocated irqs: 16
[    0.000045] sched_clock: 32 bits at 24MHz, resolution 41ns, wraps every 89478484971ns
[    0.000109] clocksource: timer: mask: 0xffffffff max_cycles: 0xffffffff, max_idle_ns: 79635851949 ns
[    0.000632] Console: colour dummy device 80x30
[    0.001541] console [tty0] enabled
[    0.001646] Calibrating delay loop... 203.16 BogoMIPS (lpj=1015808)
[    0.070279] pid_max: default: 32768 minimum: 301
[    0.070614] Mount-cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.070708] Mountpoint-cache hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.072156] CPU: Testing write buffer coherency: ok
[    0.073847] Setting up static identity map for 0x80100000 - 0x80100058
[    0.076430] devtmpfs: initialized
[    0.082710] clocksource: jiffies: mask: 0xffffffff max_cycles: 0xffffffff, max_idle_ns: 19112604462750000s
[    0.082874] futex hash table entries: 256 (order: -1, 3072 bytes)
[    0.083179] pinctrl core: initialized pinctrl subsystem
[    0.085175] NET: Registered protocol family 16
[    0.086605] DMA: preallocated 256 KiB pool for atomic coherent allocations
[    0.088461] cpuidle: using governor menu
[    0.113667] SCSI subsystem initialized
[    0.114081] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbfs
[    0.114284] usbcore: registered new interface driver hub
[    0.114536] usbcore: registered new device driver usb
[    0.115023] pps_core: LinuxPPS API ver. 1 registered
[    0.115102] pps_core: Software ver. 5.3.6 - Copyright 2005-2007 Rodolfo Giometti <giometti@linux.it>
[    0.115226] PTP clock support registered
[    0.115711] Advanced Linux Sound Architecture Driver Initialized.
[    0.117263] clocksource: Switched to clocksource timer
[    0.142997] NET: Registered protocol family 2
[    0.144457] TCP established hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.144610] TCP bind hash table entries: 1024 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.144698] TCP: Hash tables configured (established 1024 bind 1024)
[    0.145008] UDP hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.145116] UDP-Lite hash table entries: 256 (order: 0, 4096 bytes)
[    0.145623] NET: Registered protocol family 1
[    0.146863] RPC: Registered named UNIX socket transport module.
[    0.146973] RPC: Registered udp transport module.
[    0.147022] RPC: Registered tcp transport module.
[    0.147069] RPC: Registered tcp NFSv4.1 backchannel transport module.
[    0.149374] NetWinder Floating Point Emulator V0.97 (double precision)
[    0.151230] Initialise system trusted keyrings
[    0.151847] workingset: timestamp_bits=30 max_order=13 bucket_order=0
[    0.169096] NFS: Registering the id_resolver key type
[    0.169266] Key type id_resolver registered
[    0.169324] Key type id_legacy registered
[    0.182591] Key type asymmetric registered
[    0.182700] Asymmetric key parser 'x509' registered
[    0.182939] Block layer SCSI generic (bsg) driver version 0.4 loaded (major 251)
[    0.183034] io scheduler noop registered
[    0.183081] io scheduler deadline registered
[    0.183856] io scheduler cfq registered (default)
[    0.183952] io scheduler mq-deadline registered
[    0.184006] io scheduler kyber registered
[    0.185120] sun4i-usb-phy 1c13400.phy: Couldn't request ID GPIO
[    0.194687] suniv-pinctrl 1c20800.pinctrl: initialized sunXi PIO driver
[    0.360320] Serial: 8250/16550 driver, 8 ports, IRQ sharing disabled
[    0.366874] console [ttyS0] disabled
[    0.387192] 1c25000.serial: ttyS0 at MMIO 0x1c25000 (irq = 23, base_baud = 6250000) is a 16550A
[    0.858334] console [ttyS0] enabled
[    0.868820] panel-simple panel: panel supply power not found, using dummy regulator
[    0.878297] SCSI Media Changer driver v0.25 
[    0.885945] m25p80 spi0.0: w25q128 (16384 Kbytes)
[    0.893356] ehci_hcd: USB 2.0 'Enhanced' Host Controller (EHCI) Driver
[    0.900090] ehci-platform: EHCI generic platform driver
[    0.905660] ohci_hcd: USB 1.1 'Open' Host Controller (OHCI) Driver
[    0.912020] ohci-platform: OHCI generic platform driver
[    0.917753] usbcore: registered new interface driver usb-storage
[    0.924746] udc-core: couldn't find an available UDC - added [g_cdc] to list of pending drivers
[    0.933893] i2c /dev entries driver
[    0.997390] sunxi-mmc 1c0f000.mmc: base:0x19fc4356 irq:19
[    1.004869] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbhid
[    1.010644] usbhid: USB HID core driver
[    1.032408] NET: Registered protocol family 17
[    1.037187] Key type dns_resolver registered
[    1.043918] Loading compiled-in X.509 certificates
[    1.059894] sun4i-drm display-engine: bound 1e60000.display-backend (ops 0xc0739498)
[    1.068873] sun4i-drm display-engine: bound 1c0c000.lcd-controller (ops 0xc073877c)
[    1.076627] [drm] Supports vblank timestamp caching Rev 2 (21.10.2013).
[    1.083392] [drm] No driver support for vblank timestamp query.
[    1.139881] Console: switching to colour frame buffer device 60x34
[    1.142302] mmc0: host does not support reading read-only switch, assuming write-enable
[    1.144425] mmc0: new high speed SDHC card at address aaaa
[    1.145530] mmcblk0: mmc0:aaaa SU04G 3.69 GiB 
[    1.147775]  mmcblk0: p1 p2
[    1.210025] sun4i-drm display-engine: fb0:  frame buffer device
[    1.229452] [drm] Initialized sun4i-drm 1.0.0 20150629 for display-engine on minor 0
[    1.251131] usb_phy_generic usb_phy_generic.0.auto: usb_phy_generic.0.auto supply vcc not found, using dur
[    1.281958] musb-hdrc musb-hdrc.1.auto: MUSB HDRC host driver
[    1.300729] musb-hdrc musb-hdrc.1.auto: new USB bus registered, assigned bus number 1
[    1.323889] hub 1-0:1.0: USB hub found
[    1.334487] hub 1-0:1.0: 1 port detected
[    1.346660] using random self ethernet address
[    1.357775] using random host ethernet address
[    1.370414] usb0: HOST MAC 9e:9e:f1:32:4e:96
[    1.381226] usb0: MAC 7a:14:56:71:d9:b6
[    1.391517] g_cdc gadget: CDC Composite Gadget, version: King Kamehameha Day 2008
[    1.411527] g_cdc gadget: g_cdc ready
[    1.422311] cfg80211: Loading compiled-in X.509 certificates for regulatory database
[    1.452108] cfg80211: Loaded X.509 cert 'sforshee: 00b28ddf47aef9cea7'
[    1.471288] ALSA device list:
[    1.480526]   #0: Loopback 1
[    1.490371] platform regulatory.0: Direct firmware load for regulatory.db failed with error -2
[    1.511183] cfg80211: failed to load regulatory.db
[    1.525074] EXT4-fs (mmcblk0p2): couldn't mount as ext3 due to feature incompatibilities
[    4.375320] random: crng init done
[   13.218522] EXT4-fs (mmcblk0p2): recovery complete
[   13.231022] EXT4-fs (mmcblk0p2): mounted filesystem with ordered data mode. Opts: (null)
[   13.251163] VFS: Mounted root (ext4 filesystem) on device 179:2.
[   13.269447] devtmpfs: mounted
[   13.283054] Freeing unused kernel memory: 1024K
[   13.806441] systemd[1]: System time before build time, advancing clock.
[   13.843921] systemd[1]: Failed to insert module 'autofs4': No such file or directory
[   13.907908] systemd[1]: systemd 232 running in system mode. (+PAM +AUDIT +SELINUX +IMA +APPARMOR +SMACK +)
[   13.951686] systemd[1]: Detected architecture arm.

Welcome to Debian GNU/Linux 9 (stretch)!

[   13.999607] systemd[1]: Set hostname to <lign-G3-3579>.
[   15.579686] systemd[1]: Started Dispatch Password Requests to Console Directory Watch.
[  OK  ] Started Dispatch Password Requests to Console Directory Watch.
[   15.639666] systemd[1]: Created slice System Slice.
[  OK  ] Created slice System Slice.
[   15.695221] systemd[1]: Mounting Debug File System...
         Mounting Debug File System...
[   15.717544] systemd[1]: Created slice system-serial\x2dgetty.slice.
[  OK  ] Created slice system-serial\x2dgetty.slice.
[   15.781726] systemd[1]: Listening on Journal Socket.
[  OK  ] Listening on Journal Socket.
[   15.834835] systemd[1]: Starting Remount Root and Kernel File Systems...
         Starting Remount Root and Kernel File Systems...
[   15.965658] systemd[1]: Starting Load Kernel Modules...
         Starting Load Kernel Modules...
[  OK  ] Reached target Swap.
[  OK  ] Listening on Journal Socket (/dev/log).
[  OK  ] Listening on udev Kernel Socket.
[  OK  ] Listening on udev Control Socket.
[  OK  ] Started Forward Password Requests to Wall Directory Watch.
[  OK  ] Reached target Paths.
         Starting Create Static Device Nodes in /dev...
[  OK  ] Created slice system-getty.slice.
[  OK  ] Reached target Encrypted Volumes.
[  OK  ] Listening on Syslog Socket.
         Starting Journal Service...
[  OK  ] Reached target Remote File Systems.
[  OK  ] Listening on /dev/initctl Compatibility Named Pipe.
[  OK  ] Reached target Sockets.
[  OK  ] Reached target Slices.
[  OK  ] Mounted Debug File System.
[  OK  ] Started Remount Root and Kernel File Systems.
[  OK  ] Started Load Kernel Modules.
[  OK  ] Started Create Static Device Nodes in /dev.
         Starting udev Kernel Device Manager...
         Mounting Configuration File System...
         Starting Apply Kernel Variables...
         Starting Load/Save Random Seed...
         Starting udev Coldplug all Devices...
[  OK  ] Reached target Local File Systems (Pre).
[  OK  ] Reached target Local File Systems.
[  OK  ] Mounted Configuration File System.
[  OK  ] Started Apply Kernel Variables.
         Starting Raise network interfaces...
[  OK  ] Started Load/Save Random Seed.
[  OK  ] Started udev Kernel Device Manager.
[  OK  ] Started Journal Service.
         Starting Flush Journal to Persistent Storage...
[   18.629046] systemd-journald[78]: Received request to flush runtime journal from PID 1
[  OK  ] Started Flush Journal to Persistent Storage.
         Starting Create Volatile Files and Directories...
[  OK  ] Started Create Volatile Files and Directories.
         Starting Update UTMP about System Boot/Shutdown...
         Starting Network Time Synchronization...
[  OK  ] Started Network Time Synchronization.
[  OK  ] Started Update UTMP about System Boot/Shutdown.
[  OK  ] Started Raise network interfaces.
[  OK  ] Reached target Network.
[  OK  ] Reached target System Time Synchronized.
[  OK  ] Reached target Sound Card.
[  OK  ] Started udev Coldplug all Devices.
[  OK  ] Reached target System Initialization.
[  OK  ] Started Daily Cleanup of Temporary Directories.
[  OK  ] Reached target Basic System.
         Starting getty on tty2-tty6 if dbus and logind are not available...
[  OK  ] Started Regular background program processing daemon.
         Starting System Logging Service...
         Starting Permit User Sessions...
[  OK  ] Started Daily apt download activities.
[  OK  ] Started Daily apt upgrade and clean activities.
[  OK  ] Reached target Timers.
[  OK  ] Found device /dev/ttyS0.
[  OK  ] Started System Logging Service.
[  OK  ] Started Permit User Sessions.
[  OK  ] Started getty on tty2-tty6 if dbus and logind are not available.
[  OK  ] Started Getty on tty6.
[  OK  ] Started Getty on tty5.
[  OK  ] Started Getty on tty4.
[  OK  ] Started Getty on tty3.
[  OK  ] Started Getty on tty2.
[  OK  ] Started Getty on tty1.
[  OK  ] Started Serial Getty on ttyS0.
[  OK  ] Reached target Login Prompts.
[  OK  ] Reached target Multi-User System.
[  OK  ] Reached target Graphical Interface.
         Starting Update UTMP about System Runlevel Changes...
[  OK  ] Started Update UTMP about System Runlevel Changes.

Debian GNU/Linux 9 lign-G3-3579 ttyS0

lign-G3-3579 login: lign
Password: 

Login incorrect
lign-G3-3579 login: root
Password: 
Linux lign-G3-3579 4.15.0-rc8-licheepi-nano+ #1 Tue Aug 4 10:58:22 CST 2020 armv5tejl

The programs included with the Debian GNU/Linux system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Debian GNU/Linux comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent
permitted by applicable law.
root@lign-G3-3579:~# 

最近编辑记录 lignin (2020-08-04 21:24:14)

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